# Numerical Solvers for ODEs

Brain modeling toolkit provided in BrainPy is focused on differential equations. How to solve differential equations is the essence of the neurodynamics simulation. The exact algebraic solutions are only available for low-order differential equations. For the coupled high-dimensional non-linear brain dynamical systems, we need to resort to using numerical methods for solving such differential equations.

In this section, I will illustrate how to define ordinary differential quations (ODEs), and how to define the numerical integration methods for them in BrainPy.

import brainpy as bp
import brainpy.math as bm

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

%matplotlib inline


## How to define ODE functions?

BrainPy provides a convenient and intuitive way to define ODE systems. For the ODE

$\begin{split} {dx \over dt} = f_1(x, t, y, p_1)\\ {dy \over dt} = f_2(y, t, x, p_2) \end{split}$

we can define this system as a Python function:

def diff(x, y, t, p1, p2):
dx = f1(x, t, y, p1)
dy = g1(y, t, x, p2)
return dx, dy


where t denotes the current time, p1 and p2 which after the t are represented as parameters needed in this system, and x and y passed before t denotes the dynamical variables. In the function body, the derivative for each variable can be customized by the user’s need f1 and f2. Finally, we return the corresponding derivatives dx and dy with the order the same as the variables in the function arguments.

For each variable x or y, it can be a scalar (var_type = bp.integrators.SCALAR_VAR), a vector/matrix (var_type = bp.integrators.POP_VAR), or a system (var_type = bp.integrators.SYSTEM_VAR). Here, the “system” means that the argument x denotes an array of variables. Take the above example as the demonstration again, we can redefine it as:

def diff(xy, t, p1, p2):
x, y = xy
dx = f1(x, t, y, p1)
dy = g1(y, t, x, p2)
return bm.array([dx, dy])


## How to define the numerical integration for ODEs?

After the definition of ODE functions, the numerical integration of these functions are very easy in BrainPy. We just need put a decorator (bp.odeint).

@bp.odeint
def diff(x, y, t, p1, p2):
dx = f1(x, t, y, p1)
dy = g1(y, t, x, p2)
return dx, dy


After wrapping the derivative function by bp.odeint, the function becomes an instance of ODEintegrator.

isinstance(diff, bp.ode.ODEIntegrator)

True


bp.odeint receives several arguments:

• “method”: A string, used to specify the numerical methods to integrate the ODE functions. The default method is Euler.

diff

<brainpy.integrators.ode.explicit_rk.Euler at 0x7fa92852d700>

• “dt”: A float, used to set the default numerical precision. The default “dt” is 0.1.

diff.dt

0.1

• “show_code”: bool, indicates whether show the numerical integration code. Let’s take Euler method and RK4 method as the illustrated examples.

@bp.odeint(method='euler', show_code=True, dt=0.01)
def diff(x, y, t, p1, p2):
dx = f1(x, t, y, p1)
dy = g1(y, t, x, p2)
return dx, dy

diff

def brainpy_itg_of_ode1_diff(x, y, t, p1, p2, dt=0.01):
dx_k1, dy_k1 = f(x, y, t, p1, p2)
x_new = x + dx_k1 * dt * 1
y_new = y + dy_k1 * dt * 1
return x_new, y_new

{'f': <function diff at 0x7fa928517e50>}

<brainpy.integrators.ode.explicit_rk.Euler at 0x7fa92853d040>

@bp.odeint(method='rk4', show_code=True, dt=0.1)
def diff(x, y, t, p1, p2):
dx = f1(x, t, y, p1)
dy = g1(y, t, x, p2)
return dx, dy

diff

def brainpy_itg_of_ode2_diff(x, y, t, p1, p2, dt=0.1):
dx_k1, dy_k1 = f(x, y, t, p1, p2)
k2_x_arg = x + dt * dx_k1 * 0.5
k2_y_arg = y + dt * dy_k1 * 0.5
k2_t_arg = t + dt * 0.5
dx_k2, dy_k2 = f(k2_x_arg, k2_y_arg, k2_t_arg, p1, p2)
k3_x_arg = x + dt * dx_k2 * 0.5
k3_y_arg = y + dt * dy_k2 * 0.5
k3_t_arg = t + dt * 0.5
dx_k3, dy_k3 = f(k3_x_arg, k3_y_arg, k3_t_arg, p1, p2)
k4_x_arg = x + dt * dx_k3
k4_y_arg = y + dt * dy_k3
k4_t_arg = t + dt
dx_k4, dy_k4 = f(k4_x_arg, k4_y_arg, k4_t_arg, p1, p2)
x_new = x + dx_k1 * dt * 1/6 + dx_k2 * dt * 1/3 + dx_k3 * dt * 1/3 + dx_k4 * dt * 1/6
y_new = y + dy_k1 * dt * 1/6 + dy_k2 * dt * 1/3 + dy_k3 * dt * 1/3 + dy_k4 * dt * 1/6
return x_new, y_new

{'f': <function diff at 0x7fa928517a60>}

<brainpy.integrators.ode.explicit_rk.RK4 at 0x7fa92853d910>


## Two Illustrated Examples

### Example 1: FitzHugh–Nagumo model

Now, let’s take the well known FitzHugh–Nagumo model as an exmaple to illustrate how to define ODE solvers for brain modeling. The FitzHugh–Nagumo model (FHN) model has two dynamical variables, which are governed by the following equations:

$\begin{split} \begin{split} \tau {\dot {w}}&=v+a-bw\\ {\dot {v}} &=v-{\frac {v^{3}}{3}}-w+I_{\rm {ext}} \end{split} \end{split}$

For this FHN model, we can code it in BrainPy like this:

@bp.odeint(dt=0.01)
def integral(V, w, t, Iext, a, b, tau):
dw = (V + a - b * w) / tau
dV = V - V * V * V / 3 - w + Iext
return dV, dw


After defining the numerical solver, the solution of the ODE system in the given times can be easily solved. For example, for the given parameters,

a=0.7;   b=0.8;   tau=12.5;   Iext=1.


the solution of the FHN model between 0 and 100 ms can be approximated by

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

%matplotlib inline

hist_times = bm.arange(0, 100, 0.01)
hist_V = []
V, w = 0., 0.
for t in hist_times:
V, w = integral(V, w, t, Iext, a, b, tau)
hist_V.append(V)

plt.plot(hist_times, hist_V)

[<matplotlib.lines.Line2D at 0x7fa92846fa30>] ### Example 2: Hodgkin–Huxley model

Another more complex example is the classical Hodgkin–Huxley neuron model. In HH model, four dynamical variables (V, m, n, h) are used for modeling the initiation and propagration of the action potential. Specificaly, they are governed by the following equations:

\begin{split} \begin{aligned} C_{m} \frac{d V}{d t} &=-\bar{g}_{\mathrm{K}} n^{4}\left(V-V_{K}\right)- \bar{g}_{\mathrm{Na}} m^{3} h\left(V-V_{N a}\right)-\bar{g}_{l}\left(V-V_{l}\right)+I_{s y n} \\ \frac{d m}{d t} &=\alpha_{m}(V)(1-m)-\beta_{m}(V) m \\ \frac{d h}{d t} &=\alpha_{h}(V)(1-h)-\beta_{h}(V) h \\ \frac{d n}{d t} &=\alpha_{n}(V)(1-n)-\beta_{n}(V) n \end{aligned} \end{split}

In BrainPy, such dynamical system can be coded as:

@bp.odeint(method='rk4', dt=0.01)
def integral(V, m, h, n, t, Iext, gNa, ENa, gK, EK, gL, EL, C):
alpha = 0.1 * (V + 40) / (1 - bm.exp(-(V + 40) / 10))
beta = 4.0 * bm.exp(-(V + 65) / 18)
dmdt = alpha * (1 - m) - beta * m

alpha = 0.07 * bm.exp(-(V + 65) / 20.)
beta = 1 / (1 + bm.exp(-(V + 35) / 10))
dhdt = alpha * (1 - h) - beta * h

alpha = 0.01 * (V + 55) / (1 - bm.exp(-(V + 55) / 10))
beta = 0.125 * bm.exp(-(V + 65) / 80)
dndt = alpha * (1 - n) - beta * n

I_Na = (gNa * m ** 3.0 * h) * (V - ENa)
I_K = (gK * n ** 4.0) * (V - EK)
I_leak = gL * (V - EL)
dVdt = (- I_Na - I_K - I_leak + Iext) / C

return dVdt, dmdt, dhdt, dndt


Same as the FHN model, we can also integrate the HH model in the given parameters and time interval:

Iext=10.;   ENa=50.;   EK=-77.;   EL=-54.387
C=1.0;      gNa=120.;  gK=36.;    gL=0.03

hist_times = bm.arange(0, 100, 0.01)
hist_V, hist_m, hist_h, hist_n = [], [], [], []
V, m, h, n = 0., 0., 0., 0.
for t in hist_times:
V, m, h, n = integral(V, m, h, n, t, Iext, gNa, ENa, gK, EK, gL, EL, C)
hist_V.append(V)
hist_m.append(m)
hist_h.append(h)
hist_n.append(n)

plt.subplot(211)
plt.plot(hist_times, hist_V, label='V')
plt.legend()
plt.subplot(212)
plt.plot(hist_times, hist_m, label='m')
plt.plot(hist_times, hist_h, label='h')
plt.plot(hist_times, hist_n, label='n')
plt.legend()
plt.show() ## Provided ODE Numerical Solvers

BrainPy provides several numerical methods for ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Specifically, we provide explicit Runge-Kutta methods, adaptive Runge-Kutta methods, and Exponential Euler method for ODE numerical integration.

### Explicit Runge-Kutta methods for ODEs

The first category of ODE numerical integration support is the explicit Runge-Kutta (RK) methods. RK methods are a huge family of numerical methods with a wide variety of trade-offs: efficiency, accuracy, stability, etc. The supported RK methods are listed in the following table:

Methods

Keywords

Euler

euler

Midpoint

midpoint

Heun’s second-order method

heun2

Ralston’s second-order method

ralston2

RK2

rk2

RK3

rk3

RK4

rk4

Heun’s third-order method

heun3

Ralston’s third-order method

ralston3

Third-order Strong Stability Preserving Runge-Kutta

ssprk3

Ralston’s fourth-order method

ralston4

Runge-Kutta 3/8-rule fourth-order method

rk4_38rule

Users can utilize these methods by specify the method option in brainpy.odeint() with their corresponding keyword. For example:

@bp.odeint(method='rk4')
def int_v(v, t, p):
# do something
return v

int_v

<brainpy.integrators.ode.explicit_rk.RK4 at 0x7fa9283b6100>


Or, you can directly instance your favorite integrator like:

@bp.ode.RK4
def int_v(v, t, p):
# do something
return v

int_v

<brainpy.integrators.ode.explicit_rk.RK4 at 0x7fa92852dc70>

def derivative(v, t, p):
# do something
return v

int_v = bp.ode.RK4(derivative, dt=0.01)
int_v

<brainpy.integrators.ode.explicit_rk.RK4 at 0x7fa9283b63a0>


### Adaptive Runge-Kutta methods for ODEs

The second category of ODE numerical support is the adaptive RK methods. What’s different from the explicit RK methods is that adaptive methods are designed to produce an estimate of the local truncation error in a single Runge-Kutta step, then such error can be used to adaptively control the numerical step size. Specifically, if $$error > tol$$, then replace $$dt$$ with $$dt_{new}$$ and repeat the step. Therefore, adaptive RK methods allow the varied step size. In BrainPy, the following adaptive RK methods are provided:

Methods

keywords

Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg 4(5)

rkf45

Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg 1(2)

rkf12

Dormand–Prince method

rkdp

Cash–Karp method

ck

Bogacki–Shampine method

bs

Heun–Euler method

heun_euler

In default, the above methods are not adaptive, unless users provide a keyword adaptive=True in brainpy.odeint(). When users use the adaptive RK methods for numerical integration, the instantaneously adjusted stepsize dt will be appended in the functional arguments. Moreover, the tolerance tol for stepsize adjustment can also be controlled by users. Let’s take the Lorenz system as the example:

# adaptively adjust stepsize

@bp.odeint(method='rkf45',
tol=0.001) # set the tolerance
def lorenz(x, y, z, t, sigma, beta, rho):
dx = sigma * (y - x)
dy = x * (rho - z) - y
dz = x * y - beta * z
return dx, dy, dz

times = bm.arange(0, 100, 0.01)
hist_x, hist_y, hist_z, hist_dt = [], [], [], []
x, y, z, dt = bm.array(), bm.array(), bm.array(), 0.05
for t in times:
# should provide one more argument "dt" when using the adaptive rk method
x, y, z, dt = lorenz(x, y, z, t, sigma=10, beta=8/3, rho=28, dt=dt)
hist_x.append(x)
hist_y.append(y)
hist_z.append(z)
hist_dt.append(dt)
hist_x = bm.array(hist_x).flatten()
hist_y = bm.array(hist_y).flatten()
hist_z = bm.array(hist_z).flatten()
hist_dt = bm.array(hist_dt)

fig = plt.figure()
ax = plt.subplot(projection='3d')
plt.plot(hist_x, hist_y, hist_z)
ax.set_xlabel('x')
ax.set_xlabel('y')
ax.set_xlabel('z')

fig = plt.figure()
plt.plot(hist_dt[:100])
plt.xlabel('Step No.')
plt.show()  ### Exponential Euler methods for ODEs

Finally, BrainPy provides Exponential integrators for ODEs. For you linear ODE systems, we highly recommend you to to use Exponential Euler methods.

Methods

keywords

Exponential Euler

exponential_euler

For a linear system,

${dy \over dt} = A - By$

the exponential Euler schema is given by:

$y(t+dt) = y(t) e^{-B*dt} + {A \over B}(1 - e^{-B*dt})$

As you can see, for such linear systems, the exponential Euler schema is nearly the exact solution.

In BrainPy, in order to automatically find out the linear part, we will utilize the SymPy to parse user defined functions. Therefore, ones need install sympy first when using exponential Euler method.

What’s interesting, the computational expensive neuron model — Hodgkin–Huxley model — is a linear-like ODE system. In the next, you will find that by using Exponential Euler method, the numerical step can be enlarged much to save the computation time.

\begin{split} \begin{aligned} C_{m}{\frac {d V}{dt}}&= -\left[{\bar {g}}_{\text{K}}n^{4} + {\bar {g}}_{\text{Na}}m^{3}h + {\bar {g}}_{l} \right] V +{\bar {g}}_{\text{K}}n^{4} V_{K} + {\bar {g}}_{\text{Na}}m^{3}h V_{Na} + {\bar {g}}_{l} V_{l} + I_{syn} \\ {\frac {dm}{dt}} &= \left[-\alpha _{m}(V)-\beta _{m}(V)\right]m + \alpha _{m}(V) \\ {\frac {dh}{dt}} &= \left[-\alpha _{h}(V)-\beta _{h}(V)\right]h + \alpha _{h}(V) \\ {\frac {dn}{dt}} &= \left[-\alpha _{n}(V)-\beta _{n}(V)\right]n + \alpha _{n}(V) \\ \end{aligned} \end{split}
Iext=10.;   ENa=50.;   EK=-77.;   EL=-54.387
C=1.0;      gNa=120.;  gK=36.;    gL=0.03

def derivative(V, m, h, n, t, Iext, gNa, ENa, gK, EK, gL, EL, C):
alpha = 0.1 * (V + 40) / (1 - bm.exp(-(V + 40) / 10))
beta = 4.0 * bm.exp(-(V + 65) / 18)
dmdt = alpha * (1 - m) - beta * m

alpha = 0.07 * bm.exp(-(V + 65) / 20.)
beta = 1 / (1 + bm.exp(-(V + 35) / 10))
dhdt = alpha * (1 - h) - beta * h

alpha = 0.01 * (V + 55) / (1 - bm.exp(-(V + 55) / 10))
beta = 0.125 * bm.exp(-(V + 65) / 80)
dndt = alpha * (1 - n) - beta * n

I_Na = (gNa * m ** 3.0 * h) * (V - ENa)
I_K = (gK * n ** 4.0) * (V - EK)
I_leak = gL * (V - EL)
dVdt = (- I_Na - I_K - I_leak + Iext) / C

return dVdt, dmdt, dhdt, dndt

def run(method, Iext=10., dt=0.1):
hist_times = bm.arange(0, 100, dt)
hist_V, hist_m, hist_h, hist_n = [], [], [], []
V, m, h, n = 0., 0., 0., 0.
for t in hist_times:
V, m, h, n = method(V, m, h, n, t, Iext, gNa, ENa, gK, EK, gL, EL, C)
hist_V.append(V)
hist_m.append(m)
hist_h.append(h)
hist_n.append(n)

plt.subplot(211)
plt.plot(hist_times, hist_V, label='V')
plt.legend()
plt.subplot(212)
plt.plot(hist_times, hist_m, label='m')
plt.plot(hist_times, hist_h, label='h')
plt.plot(hist_times, hist_n, label='n')
plt.legend()


Euler Method

int1 = bp.odeint(f=derivative, method='euler', dt=0.1)

run(int1, Iext=10, dt=0.1)

<ipython-input-25-35d6bfdac53f>:2: RuntimeWarning: overflow encountered in exp
alpha = 0.1 * (V + 40) / (1 - bm.exp(-(V + 40) / 10))
<ipython-input-25-35d6bfdac53f>:3: RuntimeWarning: overflow encountered in exp
beta = 4.0 * bm.exp(-(V + 65) / 18)
<ipython-input-25-35d6bfdac53f>:6: RuntimeWarning: overflow encountered in exp
alpha = 0.07 * bm.exp(-(V + 65) / 20.)
<ipython-input-25-35d6bfdac53f>:7: RuntimeWarning: overflow encountered in exp
beta = 1 / (1 + bm.exp(-(V + 35) / 10))
<ipython-input-25-35d6bfdac53f>:10: RuntimeWarning: overflow encountered in exp
alpha = 0.01 * (V + 55) / (1 - bm.exp(-(V + 55) / 10))
<ipython-input-25-35d6bfdac53f>:11: RuntimeWarning: overflow encountered in exp
beta = 0.125 * bm.exp(-(V + 65) / 80)
<ipython-input-25-35d6bfdac53f>:4: RuntimeWarning: invalid value encountered in double_scalars
dmdt = alpha * (1 - m) - beta * m
<ipython-input-25-35d6bfdac53f>:8: RuntimeWarning: invalid value encountered in double_scalars
dhdt = alpha * (1 - h) - beta * h
<ipython-input-25-35d6bfdac53f>:12: RuntimeWarning: invalid value encountered in double_scalars
dndt = alpha * (1 - n) - beta * n int2 = bp.odeint(f=derivative, method='euler', dt=0.02)

run(int2, Iext=10, dt=0.02) RK4 Method

int3 = bp.odeint(f=derivative, method='rk4', dt=0.1)

run(int3, Iext=10, dt=0.1) int4 = bp.odeint(f=derivative, method='rk4', dt=0.2)

run(int4, Iext=10, dt=0.2)

<ipython-input-25-35d6bfdac53f>:2: RuntimeWarning: overflow encountered in exp
alpha = 0.1 * (V + 40) / (1 - bm.exp(-(V + 40) / 10))
<ipython-input-25-35d6bfdac53f>:3: RuntimeWarning: overflow encountered in exp
beta = 4.0 * bm.exp(-(V + 65) / 18)
<ipython-input-25-35d6bfdac53f>:6: RuntimeWarning: overflow encountered in exp
alpha = 0.07 * bm.exp(-(V + 65) / 20.)
<ipython-input-25-35d6bfdac53f>:7: RuntimeWarning: overflow encountered in exp
beta = 1 / (1 + bm.exp(-(V + 35) / 10))
<ipython-input-25-35d6bfdac53f>:10: RuntimeWarning: overflow encountered in exp
alpha = 0.01 * (V + 55) / (1 - bm.exp(-(V + 55) / 10))
<ipython-input-25-35d6bfdac53f>:11: RuntimeWarning: overflow encountered in exp
beta = 0.125 * bm.exp(-(V + 65) / 80)
<ipython-input-25-35d6bfdac53f>:4: RuntimeWarning: invalid value encountered in double_scalars
dmdt = alpha * (1 - m) - beta * m
<ipython-input-25-35d6bfdac53f>:8: RuntimeWarning: invalid value encountered in double_scalars
dhdt = alpha * (1 - h) - beta * h
<ipython-input-25-35d6bfdac53f>:12: RuntimeWarning: invalid value encountered in double_scalars
dndt = alpha * (1 - n) - beta * n
<ipython-input-25-35d6bfdac53f>:17: RuntimeWarning: invalid value encountered in double_scalars
dVdt = (- I_Na - I_K - I_leak + Iext) / C Exponential Euler Method

int5 = bp.odeint(f=derivative, method='exponential_euler', dt=0.2)

run(int5, Iext=10, dt=0.2) 